Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) involves capturing CO2 from industrial processes and utilizing it in the production of other products such as plastic or alternative fuels.


CCU aims to convert captured CO2 into valuable substances or products while retaining the carbon neutrality of the production processes. This is a vital part of the solution, both with regards to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and in terms of substituting fossil fuels with renewable  energy sources.


CCU depends on power-to-X, a set of technologies that involve converting electrical power, often from renewable sources, into other forms of energy or chemical compounds. The “X” in “Power-to-X” represents a variable, indicating that various outputs that can result from this process – for instance hydrogen, which can be used as a clean fuel or as feedstock for methane or methanol.


These processes are part of the broader efforts to find ways to store and use renewable energy efficiently, especially when the electricity generation exceeds immediate demand. “Power-to-X” technologies can play a role in balancing the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources and contribute to a more sustainable energy system.

E-fuels, short for electrofuels, are considered a potential solution for storing renewable energy and providing a clean energy source for sectors that are challenging to electrify directly, such as heavy industry, aviation, and long-haul transportation.


However, their production can be energy-intensive, and the overall environmental impact depends on the source of electricity used in the process. If the electricity comes from renewable sources, e-fuels have the potential to be a low-carbon or even carbon-neutral alternative to conventional fossil fuels.

For large-scale CCU to become technically and commercially viable, mature technologies for CO2 capture are necessary as well as a pipeline infrastructure to transport captured CO2 from the emitter location to the point where it will be utilized in industrial processes.

In addition to CO2, power-t-X processes for producing e-fuels require large amounts of  electricity from renewable sources and large amounts of high-purity water. 


First, electrolysis is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity. The hydrogen is then combined with carbon dioxide captured from industrial processes to  produce synthetic hydrocarbons such as methanol, gasoline or diesel.